It started with a “no plastic” drive in Sarvapriya Vihar by a group of residents. In July 2017, they approached the shops in the colony market and the vendors in carts, urging them to stop giving plastic bags to their customers. Regularly for a month, they met the vendors and shop owners early in the morning, to educate them about the perils of plastic. Various communication efforts were made by placing standees with various anti-plastic slogans on the carts of the vendors and in the shops. It included slogans like, “humare bachchon ka bhavishya humare haath, chhoro plastic ka saath” and, “plastic hatao, duniya bachao”.
Cloth bags were made from bed sheets and bed covers donated by the residents. These bags were given to the vendors, free of cost, to replace the plastic bags. The Sarvapriya Vihar RWA also came up to support this initiative by taking punitive measures against those vendors who were not complying and their passes were confiscated, until they promised to comply. This move was taken seriously by the vendors.
During the same time, visits to Mayfair Gardens and Defence Colony, two nearby colonies, and meeting with Mrs. Shammi Talwar, the pioneer of community composting, based in Defence Colony, brought about the idea of community composting among some of the residents, who later went on to form the “green team”.
The next thing was to get hold of physical place for composting. There were both DDA and MCD parks in the colony, but the problem was that DDA had no policy to lend their land for such (composting) activity and MCD parks were far from the houses. One MCD park, which was being restored by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) to be handed over to MCD and colony, was finalized. Green Team approached Mr Vishwendra, Dy. Commissioner SDMC for use of this land as composting site, who readily agreed. This strip of 27 meters x 8 meters land was handed over to RWA Sarvapriya Vihar for composting purpoes, although the ownership of the land remained with the Horticulture Department MCD.
Hon’ble MLA Shri Somnath Bharti extended his valuable support and arranged Sarvapriya Vihar’s composting site with boundary wall and gate.
Green team members approached DMRC to dig pits in the space with the help of their cranes and other equipment. DMRC assisted to construct 3 pits (6 ft x 5 ft x 4 ft approx). Residents pooled in for bricks, cement and labor. The Green Team successfully convinced some residents who had the ominous concerns about smell and the place turning into a dump yard.
On 6th January 2018, Smt. Meenakshi Lekhi, Hon’ble M.P., New Delhi, inaugurated 3 composting pits.
In parallel, effort was being made to beautify and landscape the site through a plantation drives around the composting site. Ashok, Ficus, Tulsi, Mint, Champa trees are planted around and at the entrance of the site. DMRC also contributed to the drive by giving us Ashok and Ficus saplings.
Green team with Syawam Swachatta Initiative Limited (SSIL) conducted workshops and sessions with domestic workers and household helps on why and how to segregate household waste. Every household was communicated by the RWA explaining that Supreme Court had made it mandatory to segregate household waste before it was handed over to the garbage collector. This was later complemented by a 4-month door-to-door supervision and campaign by the waste collectors together with ITC WOW that turned Sarvapriya Vihar into 100% segregation colony.
The first lot of compost, about 120 kg, got ready by end of January 2019. By September end the site has churned out 6 batches of compost. It is sold to the residents at a nominal rate of Rs. 10 per Kg. Another befitting example of Waste to Wealth.
M. Tech. (Environmental Science and Engineering)
Department of Civil Engineering
Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi-110025
Mason Cooley, an Aphorist had rightly quoted, “human society sustains itself by transforming nature into garbage”. These garbage piles covers acres of land and their heaps reach significant height. Furthermore, as population density increases, heaps of garbage grows taller as taller, sometimes reaching to those fractions which are hard to believe.
Out of ten largest landfill sites in world, six of them are to be found in Asia. Out of these six, two are from India, Delhi Landfills in New Delhi and Deonar Landfill in Mumbai.
Delhi Landfill is the 7th largest in the World, 3rd largest in Asia and largest in India. The sites are Narela Bawana (North Delhi), Bhalswa (North Delhi), Okhla (South Delhi) and Gazipur (East Delhi). They have combined area 316 acres.
Narela Bawana is the newest and India’s first scientific landfill site which is still under construction and is expected to get completed in August 2019 and get started by November 2019 and reduce the burden on the already three existing landfill sites where garbage piles are more than 30 meter as against permissible limit of 20 meter. The landfill will cover the area of Rohini and Civil Lines. In this landfill, 13MW electricity would be generated from 1300 MT of solid waste. Only 25% of the total garbage will be dumped at site, 10% would be used for composting, and rest would be processed. It is the only landfill lined with two layers of clay and high density polythene layer in between to prevent from ground water contamination. Also this landfill will be having provision for gas trap. The life span of this Public-private partnership model (PPP model) is said to be 25 years.
Bhalswa landfill, the second biggest dumping ground was created in 1984. Today it occupies an area of 52 acres with a height of 62 meters. The site reached its saturation point in 2006 but it still receives a mixed waste of 2000 metric tons per day. Baroda-based company prepared detailed project report (DPR) which shows landfill has 60% inert waste, 30% waste not decomposed and 5% metals, glass and hazardous waste such as sanitary napkins. On 20th October 2018, fire started and lasted for few days and sent thick smoke with toxic mass of polluting particles in the air and degraded the air quality of the surrounding air more. Over 13 fire tenders and a dozen truckfuls of construction and demolition waste were used to contain the fire. However, overuse of construction debris in such cases could create methane pools that could lead to explosions. Bhalswa landfill has experienced fires most frequently among the three landfills. They are caused by an accretion and leakage of methane gas from the landfill. Tens of thousands of residents near site are being affected. The narrow lanes of the jhuggi-jhopdi or slum cluster are bordered with open drains, which see a constant flow of leachate that seeps out from the landfill. If the wind is too much, then the garbage topples and falls right into their houses. The NDMC has now floated a tender for remediation of the Bhalswa landfill.
Okhla Landfill was commissioned in 1996 and covers an area of 40 acres. The SDMC has now stopped dumping waste on landfill since February 2018, after eight years of its exhausted life span. The site was declared exhausted in 2010. The height of the landfill has been reduced from 58 metres which was almost thrice than the permissible limit to 38 metres. Also the civic body, along with an expert from IIT Delhi, are converting the over-saturated landfill site into a green mound. Since then, 70 percent of the work has been completed and around 7,000 square meter of ground has been planted with grass. The tests of the stabilised dump, carried out by Shri Ram Institute of Industrial research revealed that after stabilisation, the garbage consists of 93.72% of sand, earth, soil, bricks, concrete etc, 1.97% organic matter, 3.77% plastic and 0.54 glass and metals, the report states. The test also noted that the process reduced the height of the Okhla landfill by 30%.
Ghazipur landfill, the oldest and largest landfill site of Delhi was started in 1984. It is spread over 70 acres which is the area of more than 40 football pitches and has a height of 65 meters which is just 8 metres less than that of Qutub Minar's height. At its current rate of growth, it will be taller than the iconic Taj in Agra, some 73 metres high, in 2020.It is still in use despite planned site life of 25 years. The site reached its capacity in 2002, but each day 2000 tonnes of garbage is dumped at site. Residents of Gharoli, Khoda, Gharoli Extension, Kalyanpuri, Kaushambi, Ghazipur and Kondli have impacts of site on their lives. Methane gas coming from the dump causes fires break out regularly which take days to extinguish. It adds the concentration of toxic pollutants to air and smashes the quality of air badly. In September 2017, two persons were killed when the portion of landfill collapsed. Dumping was banned after the deaths, but the measure lasted only a few days because authorities could not find an alternative. The Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) is now seeking help from global experts of the field to tackle with this problematic situation. The PMO has asked the principal advisor to the government to find an authoritative answer to the question. According to a request for proposal (REF) seen by Economic Times, the principal advisor has been entrusted with resolving the two challenges of Ghazipur dump site. One is, removal and valorisation (recycling or composting waste) at the open landfill site and the second is management and treatment of the continuous flow of 2200 tonnes of fresh waste per day. Good results, in longer term, are expected from the rigorous working initiated by the Municipal Bodies on waste management at point source, like group housing, hospitals, institutions and hotels, etc.
Sanjaya K. Mishra
Participation of the community plays a vital role in efficient governance. Involvement of citizens inculcates the feeling of empowerment which helps communities to grow into the healthier living atmosphere. Such strong citizen groups result in sustainable solutions.
A Resident Welfare Association (RWA) is an elected body that represents residents of a colony and forms an essential part of modern societies. With hundreds to thousands of residents living together in a society, an RWA is a voluntary body that works in the interest of its resident members.
Sanjaya K. Mishra
Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is an Indian state-owned steel making company. SAIL is one of India's fastest growing Public Sector Units, with an annual turnover of Rs. 58,297 Crore for fiscal year 2017-18. A review of the SAIL Corporate Sustainability Report for the FY 2017-18 was carried out on the basis of selected environmental parameters.
In his message SAIL’s Chairman stated “The Company firmly believes in a sustainable approach for its business that is in equilibrium with the three bottom lines-financial, social and environmental. Achieving financial and environmental excellence as well as honouring social responsibility has been the ‘key mantra’ for SAIL since inception.”
National Water Mission (NWM), Ministry of Jal Shakti organized the 6th Water Talk on 23rd August 2019 at Andhra Pradesh - Telangana Bhavan, Ashoka Road, New Delhi. Two new speakers presented their case studies in the program.
Shri Popatrao Pawar, Sarpanch, Hiware Bazar, Maharashtra delivered an inspiring Talk through a thoroughly absorbing presentation on the topic ‘Hiware Bazar – A Water Budgeting model’.
Shri Umakant Umrao, IAS, Secretary, P&RD Department, Government of Madhya Pradesh and CEO, MPRRDA, Madhya Pradesh delivered a very powerful Talk on the topic ‘The Dewas Initiative: An economically viable and environmentally sustainable water conservation Model.
“During monsoon season, hazardous wastes may not be accepted at the TSDF site and occupier needs to store it for a minimum period of four months” contravenes the provisions of 8 (1) of the Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016; needs deliberation
Sanjaya K. Mishra
In a legal agreement document, M/s Gujarat Enviro Protection and Infrastructure (Haryana) Pvt. Ltd. (GEPIL) describes itself as it leads the Consortium of Members has been awarded the work for the development of the above TSDF. The work has been awarded by HEMS, which is acting as a nodal agency of the Government of Haryana. The agreement dated 7th November 2014 was found to be a tool to offer complete protection to GEPIL and all responsibilities and questions lie on the shoulders of a legitimate member of HEMS. There are several conditions specified in the agreement, which could have been simplified with one line that the onus of compliance with regard to the conditions of an authorization granted by the State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) lies on the part of the industry, except the condition pertaining to transportation and disposal; which is in the part of GEPIL.
One of the conditions in the agreement reads that the Client (which is referred to an industry or any other establishment generating hazardous wastes) shall maintain records of hazardous wastes generated, stored and sent for treatment and disposal to GEPIL (Haryana). Such records are subject to check and physical verification by authorized representatives of GEPIL (Haryana) through a visit to Clients’ premises. This dictatorial condition differs from HEMS statement “Many people hear ‘environmental management’ and immediately think of two things: bureaucracy and expense. But the effort on environmental protection for us has yielded opportunities of real-world, long-term cost savings in areas like reduced power and water use in every type of industries. Perhaps even more significant is the possible positive impact in the face value to obtain a better image. A section of our members had created a workplace that was less likely to generate injuries or serious environmental accidents. Less risk means greater opportunity for return on investment. We’re told the potential impact of our initiative, taken with other factors, is a point for improvement. Now, that’s the kind of savings that makes industrial leaders and the public both very happy.” As such according to all the rules pertaining to hazardous waste management requires maintenance of records those are subject to verification by the SPCB officials. In this case, the condition of GEPIL (Haryana) needs to be clarified and not be dictatorial.
(This article was published in the 36th issue of Enviro Annotations)
Farooq Ahmad Bakloo, Research Scholar Department of Political Science SSJ Campus, Almora
Asma, UGC SRF Scholar, Department of Education, SSJ Campus, Almora
Climate change has been the biggest challenge to the world as it has adverse effects on the green planet. Third world countries are fall prey to this jeopardy as these countries have twin challenges one is to alter their economic development another is to curtail the carbon emissions. In the past, this climate change had shown the number of repercussions which has consumed many lives in the various parts of the map. It is the reason the International community is solemn about the matter and have taken the cluster of steps to mitigate this problem. Freshly the Paris agreement was part of this exercise how to deal with the Climate change in the world.
This article has been printed in the 37th Issue of Enviro Annotations
Pradeep Kumar Panda Contributor
Economist, New Delhi
This article was published in the 35th issue of Enviro Annotations
With several mineral deposits, India ranks first in the production of coal, iron ore, chromite, mica and bauxite. Besides, it has large deposits of building stones such as granite, marble, limestone etc. in addition to huge deposits of cement and steel grade limestone. India has thousands of illegal unorganised mines, which can be as small as twentieth portion of a hectare. However, most of these minerals will last for merely 50 to 100 year at the current rate of production.
Contributors: Farooq Ahmad Bakloo (PhD Scholar at Kumaun University Nainital S.S.J Campus Almora Uttrakhand, Internship at Parliament of India ) & Saima Tabassum, (Graduate in Fishers from G.B. Pant University of Agricultural and Technology Pantnagar Uttarakhand)
Water is an essential indigent of the human life from the history it is well recorded that the famous civilisations of the world were resided near the water sources because of this these civilisations were named as water civilisations. These civilisations are Mesopotamia Civilization (Tigris and Euphrates Rivers) Harappa Indus Valley civilisation (Indus and Ganges) Egypt Civilization (Nile River), and China civilisation (Yellow and Yangtze River).
Hon’ble Union Minister for Jal Shakti, Shri Gajendra Singh Shekhawat’s promise on piped water coverage to increase from 18 to 100% by 2024 is highly laudable and also truly inspiring. In the downtrodden districts like Balangir, in the western part of Odisha more than 70% people are not accessible to safe drinking water. Even in the district head quarter piped water supply, which has augmented to a great deal, does not reach to more than 60% of the population.
By Leena Patidar
(The writer is a freelancer in the field of Education, Environment and a strong believer of life-long learning) Published in Editorial Column of 25th Issue of Enviro Annotations on 15th May 2019
It was an unusual sight at polling booths across Delhi and the National Capital Region (NCR) on 12th May 2019, the polling day. No banners, no posters, no handouts & no loudspeakers.
While elections and mode of election campaigning has changed with time, there has been a visible difference in making elections more friendly to the environment.
Since the first prototype of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) was demonstrated by Bharat Electronics Limited (BHEL) in 1977, EVMs have slowly replaced paper ballots and have become norms for conducting polling despite various questions raised by political parties from time to time.
According to some estimates, 7000-8000 tonnes of paper was required to print ballots if elections were using paper ballots, which meant felling of nearly 1.2 lakh fully grown trees. This is in addition to the other impacts on the environment due to transportation, storage, and disposal of such a large number of paper ballots.
Activists, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Judiciary, Election Commission, Press, and Media have made sustained efforts to reduce the use of single-use plastic and also lessen the use of loudspeakers in 2019 General Elections.
Use of plastic and other non-bio-degradable material in campaigning was another concern. The World Wide Fund for Nature-India, in a letter to the EC in 1999, had stated that it was “very perturbed over the excessive and non-sensible use of plastic by political parties”, which not only caused “choking of drainage systems in major towns and cities” but also contaminated agricultural fields.
The Election Commission had asked all political parties and contesting candidates to desist from using environmentally hazardous material like plastics in banners, hoardings, cut-outs and other poll-related articles during upcoming general elections.
Election Commission and Haritha Keralam Mission jointly came out with rules to observe green protocol during elections in Kerala.
Punjab and Haryana High Court has also taken a serious note of the impact of usage of PVC flex boards and other harmful material being used by the candidates during the elections based on Public Interest Litigation (PIL) filed by activist Rohit Sabharwal.
Gone are the days when loudspeakers of candidates ran through the streets disturbing people all through the day. Now, it seems that elections have become quite noiseless. Use of sound limiters to reduce the decibel level of loudspeakers and restricting hours of use of loudspeakers have helped bring down the decibel level of election campaigns. The National Green Tribunal (NGT) in its order categorically said that poll campaigns are not exempt from its order of using sound-limiter.
While technology such as the Internet and mobile phones have helped change the mode of the campaign to personalize and focus the campaigning using the technology, evolving election protocol, increasing awareness and activism have also helped to make elections eco-friendly.
Sanjaya Kumar Mishra
The sustainability report cites Chairmen message that reads, “We are pleased to share with you 16th Corporate Sustainability Report prepared in accordance with the GRI Standards ‘Comprehensive’ option. This year we have tried to present how we have imbibed the principles of ‘Creating Value Sustainably’ which are reflected in our regular business actions. We drive to create and share lasting value to our stakeholders, which is integral to our long-term business success. The confidence entrusted upon us by our stakeholders: investors, customers, employees, community and others have made us what we are today and we have tried to meet their expectations sustainably in the past 40 years of our existence. We invite you to learn more about our initiatives towards creating value for our stakeholders in this report”.
In the sustainability report Jubilant Life Sciences has declared “Climate change and its impact on the planet is very evident and is a global phenomenon. Our company is no exception to this. Jubilant understand the damage potential this can bring to our business. Management is continuously gauging the changes in global, regional and national level policies and regulations on climate change and its mitigation. To be a partner to this global drive for climate action the Company is striving to reduce its carbon footprint in all possible means. Growing cost of energy and its linkage with climate change impact is a major business concern at Jubilant like any other industry. To tackle this issue, Jubilant has decided to focus on improving process energy efficiency, find alternate sources of uninterrupted low cost energy and increasing the percentage of renewable energy in present energy mix.”
Under the key highlights of the report it is mentioned that the revenue in the financial year 2017-18 grew by 26% and the figure reached Rs. 75578.1 million as against Rs. 60063.3 million during 2016-17. The company has approved investment of Rs. 822.5 million towards environmental Pollution Control and Management. Alongside, 37 million was spent on CSR initiatives. However, the report says that all Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programs of JLL are taken care by Jubilant Bhartia Foundation (JBF) which is a “not-for-profit” organization established in 2007 by Jubilant Bhartia Group. In the CSR Performance Improvement Trend Assessed by EcoVadis the score for the element environment has remained same at 60% for last three years that is from 2015 to 2018, despite the company has approved capital expenditure projects worth more than Rs. 822.5 million for environmental pollution control and management measures in Indian operation. The element sustainable procurement improved from 40% to 50%.
Another information shared in the sustainability report is that Walkathon event raised over Rs. 2.1 million funds through collective effort of over 1600 individuals. This stands unclear as the industry or corporate ought to spend towards community development, while here the company has gathered funds, and here is no data on where and how it was spent.
Furthermore, the report declares that 25% increase in recycle and reuse of water. But the data is limited to Life Sciences Ingredients (LSI) unit only and does not talk about other units. The company has claimed that 913 million saved through resource saving projects estimated saving of 224 TJ equivalent of energy and reduction of 21326 MT of CO2 equivalent. As compared to 2016-17, 8% reduction in Specific Energy Consumption for Solid Dosage Formulations business. The total direct energy consumption from Renewable energy is merely 3.74%.
Overall 10% increase in fly ash utilization, when there was an increase in consumption of coal has increased by over 7.2% from 401339 MT to 430371 MT. Also, the generation, reuse, and disposal data reflect that there is still a storage of some 6000MT of flyash. The company must have chalked out strategy to handle this, although it was not mentioned in the report. The company has declared that the specific GHG emissions reduction was 13% in APIs Business, and 5% in Solid Dosage Formulation (SDF) business. Total GHG emissions stood at 959000 Ton of CO2 equivalent, which is nearly 12.56% up as compared to the previous fiscal. As per the report, use of Furnace Oil, which is reckoned as a high level of pollution-generating fuel, has increased from 5081 MT to 7882 MT.
According to the report co-processing of hazardous waste improved in Indian operations to 4935 MT in FY 2018 from 1355 MT in FY 2017.
The report states that Compliance with respect to various statutes, rules and regulations applicable to the Company is managed by the Secretarial Department. Status of compliance is governed through an intranet based application- Statutory Compliance Reporting System (SCRS). Respective control owners certify their compliances on a quarterly basis and a compliance report is prepared through SCRS. The objective of the SCRS certification is to ensure that the compliances are effectively managed and controlled supporting the Company’s business objectives and corporate policy requirements. Under the heading “Principle for Defining Report Content and Context” it is stated that the Company focuses on data accuracy, balance, clarity, comparability, reliability and timeliness. To ensure such report quality, the company undergoes several internal audits along with dedicated sustainability assurance audit by independent third party every year.
In order to track timely closure of environmental issues ‘Jagriti’- an in-house developed software has been deployed for tracking environmental related observations and analysis. This helps us to identify and implement preventive measures. But it doesn’t share any confirmation regarding installation of the Online Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (OCEMS), a real-time air and water pollution monitoring system, which is legally required to be installed as per the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) letter dated 05.02.2014. This is a major compliance required to be attained as the industry falls in one of the 17 categories of highly polluting industrial sectors.
According to the report, the company does not manufacture products containing Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS). All banned ODS have been phased out as per applicable regulations of the land. At Jubilant, emission of ODS is primarily from ODS based refrigerants in air-conditioners and chilling plants. During 2017-18 total ODS emission was 174 kg CFC 11 equivalent against 114 kg CFC 11 equivalent in FY 2016-17.
The report also states “To the best of our knowledge no material impact envisaged in the water sources due to withdrawal of water by the Company”. But the claim needs to be substantiated with data and information. The report informs that the group has implemented 5 new rain water harvesting facilities this year to recharge groundwater. However, it doesn’t specify the quantity or volume. Around 60 village ponds adopted as an initiative to recharge large scale potential to recharge the groundwater table by about 3 million cubic meter per year. However, whether this act is linked to the requirements of Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) or a pure CSR initiative, is not mentioned clearly, if the company’s facilities have obtained approvals groundwater abstraction with due permission from CGWA .
Analysis of the report raises another question, why the combined quantum of effluent has significantly increased, despite less water consumption. Furthermore, when air pollution has been a major point discussion, the report has given no reference to ambient air quality in the vicinity of industry premises, although it is generating and having storage of a huge quantity of flyash, and other gases. The sustainability report should share the data of PM2.5, PM10 and H2S gas.
Under the heading of compliance – it doesn’t cite the name of the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) and none of its compliance reporting. It is understood that the industry must have sought environmental clearance from the MoEF&CC, which requires submission of six-monthly compliance reports, regularly. Such reports should also be displayed on the websites. It was also found that the sustainability report of Jubilant Life Sciences Limited has not stated the name Press or Media in the list of stakeholder groups or anywhere.
Jubilant Life Sciences Limited is an integrated global pharmaceutical and life sciences company engaged in Pharmaceuticals, Life Science Ingredients and Other businesses including Drug Discovery Solutions and India Branded Pharmaceuticals. The Company claims as being well recognized as a ‘Partner of Choice’ by leading pharmaceuticals and life sciences companies globally. Jubilant Life Sciences Limited (JLL) has been publishing its sustainability report since 2003 following GRI guidelines and its principles. An effort was made to review the company’s sustainability report for the period 2017-18.
Sanjaya Kumar Mishra
The Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) was constituted under Section 3 (3) of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 to regulate and control development and management of ground water resources in the country. It works under the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation, However, the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), another subordinate office of the Ministry, is the National Apex Agency entrusted with the responsibilities of providing scientific inputs for management, exploration, monitoring, assessment, augmentation and regulation of ground water resources of the country. Central Ground Water Board was established in 1970 by renaming the Exploratory Tube wells Organization under the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. It was merged with the Ground Water Wing of the Geological Survey of India during 1972.
Nearly two decades back, the CGWA formulated a policy to register existing bore wells. In the national level, the registration process was not a major success. Need of obtaining prior approval or no objection certificate (NOC) has been stressed upon for almost the last two decades. This condition could be found in various environmental clearances issued by the erstwhile Ministry of Environment and Forests. A number of Orders from legal institutions like National Green Tribunal (NGT) for the last couple years have also failed to generate that degree of response in favour of CGWA.
Obtaining No Objection Certificate (NOC ) or approval from Central Ground Water Authority is legally mandatory to abstract water from underground source.
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